Friday, May 22, 2020
Economic Strength is Effective More Than Guns (FOR) Ã¢â¬Å"We must work our destiny in our own way and present to the world an economic system based on true Islamic concept of equality of manhood and social justice. We will thereby be fulfilling our mission as Muslims and giving to humanity the message of peace which alone can save it and secure the welfare, happiness and prosperity of mankind.Ã¢â¬ These are the words of our beloved leader, the founder of Pakistan, the Quaid-i-Azam M. Ali Jinnah on the occasion of inauguration of the state bank of Pakistan, giving the message of peace and welfare. My arguments are in favor of economic strength. The first question that would strike peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds is why economic strength or why guns. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s go back and ponder on the beginning. Since the inception of mankind, man has been striving hard for his survival. Life gives challenges and the supreme creature of God counters them. The journey from living in caves to residing in sky-high buildings has been a journey of gaining strength. This strength has always been gained in two dimensions, the wealth and the might. Some people and nations went to strengthen their military might and ruled the world, others focused on economy to keep their flag high. Time does not remain the same. In past when world was not so advanced, use of force or the use of guns was the way forward. Brutality and bloodshed earned the strength. Without military might, nations collapsed. But now the dawn of twenty firstShow MoreRelatedEssay about Wars, Guns, and Votes: Democracy in Dangerous Places880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstates have been largely unsuccessful. In the book Wars, Guns, and Votes: Democracy in Dangerous Places, economist Paul Collier examines how the international communityÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with democracy and elections has hindered the developmental process in what he has termed as the bottom billion countries. By employing economic methods of analysis, Collier demonstrates how current international development polices have exacerbated rather than diminished existing issues impeding reconstruction effortsRead More America Does Not Need Gun Control Essay1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Gun control is often considered as an effective means of protecting ordinary citizens. We all want to feel safe, and its easy to ascribe notions of safety to the idea of gun control. Unfortunately, feeling safe and actually being safe can be very different things. Gun control sounds wonderful in theory: no guns means no shootings. If only it were that simple. When one considers some of the worst shootings and gun-related crimes in recent history, its peculiar to realize how often theseRead MoreStrengths And Weaknesses Of North And South1016 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStrengths and Weaknesses of North and South The Civil War was the bloodiest war in American history. America was split into two sides that had strengths and weaknesses against each other. It seemed they were the complete opposite. The North had more factories and railroads, while the South had more farms. Politics had a strong part to play too. The North had a better government, while the South struggled to form one. Finally, the North had a larger army throughout the war. The first major partRead MoreSuspense and Tension in Brian De Palmas film The Untouchables1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSuspense and Tension in Brian De Palmas film The Untouchables During the 1920s many people were unemployed because of the poor economic conditions in America and to make it worse, were drinking to make their lives more tolerable. The government decided to ban the sale and drinking of alcohol, this was period was called The Prohibition. People continued to want to drink and this lead people to go to illegal bars or speakeasies which sprang up all over America. GangstersRead MoreSuperpowers in WOrld War II1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLuftwaffe had a substantial impact on the military, economic and social systems of Britain throughout the Second World War. BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s air force was a vital part of their military and defence when Hitler attempted to gain air superiority over England through the German Luftwaffe which was led by Hermann GÃ ¶ering. The radar system used to detect aerial attack in Britain was flawed in the beginning of the war and there was a shortage of anti-air craft guns. Radar could not predict the size and height ofRead MoreVietnam And The Vietnam War1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesproduction of guns in order to keep up with third world countries and also brand new knowledge into tactics was pushed in order to gain advantages over enemy countries. You may ask; why was a push for new weapons and tactics so important in the Vietnam War? The advancement of new technology helped the Vietnamese gain strength whether it is on the battlefield or even at sea. Ã¢â¬Å"By the mid-1960s, most main force Vietcong troops were armed with Chinese versions of the Russian AK-47 submachine gun.Ã¢â¬ . The inventionRead MoreForeign Policy And The Middle East1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe region is facing. Military action and presence helps but I believe there needs to be more of a plan with a end goal. This plan needs to include a timetable for action and specific plan. On the contrary, it is hard to have an official plan when different groups and issues are always arising. Military action helps for the U.S. to advance and prevent terrorist groups from taking over more areas and causing more turmoil. For example, after the events of 9/11 the U.S. government focused its foreignRead MoreLack Of Concrete Marketing Data For A Company1356 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdescribed in the book, lacking of concrete marketing data for a company is like taking a knife to a gun war, which means that you will lose undoubted. Nowadays, marketing measurement and data-driven marketing is more and more important for managers. For instance, companies that using marketing metrics and embracing the data-driven marketing culture will resu lt in a significantly better financial performance than other companies that does not. By keeping scores of marketing spending, the company will haveRead MoreCauses and Consequences of Emancipation Russia1743 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbecause the nature of serfdom prevented the country from catching up with the west, and the most important consequence was that the military was able to dramatically improve. One major reason that serfdom was abolished was because of the poor economic situation and general backwardness of the nation. Due to the nature of serfdom the economy was prevented from evolving; the serfs werenÃ¢â¬â¢t paid, so there could be no market, there could be no interest, and enterprise was prevented. This left RussiaRead MoreJapan s Government And Civil Law System Essay1044 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesunderstanding their religious structure, social structure, languages they speak and interest they uphold. In 1603, after years of civil warfare, the Tokugawa Shogunate (dynastic-led government) kept in the shadows of foreign influence. For more than two centuries this policy allowed Japan to enjoy a flowering of their indigenous culture. In 1854, Japan sign the Treaty of Kanagawa which allowed port trading with the United States. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan became
Sunday, May 10, 2020
Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3283 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/03/21 Category Psychology Essay Type Research paper Level High school Tags: Behavior Essay Did you like this example? There are many forms of helping behavior, but for this paper we will be looking at door holding. Many researchers have looked into the helping behavior of door holding and we will look at this research. There have been a lot of studies done on how weather affects whether or not someone will help another person (Gueguen, Stefan, 2013). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Research a Helping behavior" essay for you Create order It has been shown that when there is sunshine it influences human social relationships (Gueguen Stefan, 2013). This means more helping behavior. One study looked at how weather affects mood, which in turn will determine whether, or not someone will do a helping behavior. In this study done by Michael R. Cunningham, he mentions that the current weather will in fact affect two things. It will affect emotion and it will also affect social behavior (1979). Scientists have shown that indeed when the sun is out, it creates good emotions, which we will then have people with good moods (Gueguen Stefan, 2013). If you think about it, this makes sense. It depends who you are as a person. We may just assume people will be most affected by bad weather, such as, being cold, raining and snowing. This may be true for some people. There are also people who really cant handle hot weather. Sunshine also is a factor to whether, or not someone will be willing to help someone. According to one article from Nicolas Gueguen and Lubomir Lamy, when there is sunshine it affects someones social interactions and their emotions (2013). It is found that a persons helping behavior is related and varies in weather (Gueguen Lamy, 2013). There is a good chance that when the sun is shining, people have more of a positive emotional state, and they are in a good moods (Gueguen Lamy, 2013). When people are in the positives emotional state and good mood they are more willing to help someone (Gueguen Lamy, 2013). Weather can affect people in a number of ways. Not only does the current weather affect helping behavior, but whatever weather people are expecting influences social behaviors (Gueguen Lamy, 2013). This means that when people know the weather is going to be out, they will be more willing to help. Mainly, it can make someone in a good mood, or even a bad mood. Different moods will affect the way they treat other people around them. The article states that and story weather has related to reducing tak performance (Cunningham, 1979). In this same article it mentions that sunny days can help the environment to be pleasant (Cunningham, 1979). Helping behavior is considered to be a form of social behavior. The article states that social behavior can vary as a function depending on the mood or even the emotional state of mind of the person (Cunningham, 1979). Depending on whether or not the weather affects someones emotional state of mind can affect helping behavior (Cunningham, 1979). In conclusion of this article, there has been a good amount of associations between any helping behavior and that of weather variables (Cunningham, 1979). In this study done, it was found that when there was sunshine, the helping behavior was greater on these days (Cunningham, 1979). Then on cloudy days there was a lower chance of helping behavior shown (Cunningham, 1979). During the summer it was found that the days it was cooler and the wind was higher, and when weather was warmer with less wind speed in the winter, there was a greater chance of helping behavior in both scenarios (Cunningham,1979). Overall, on sunny days people are more willing to help and on cloudy days they are less willing to help someone (Gueguen Lamy, 2013). When the sun is out, in turn we have people with more positive moods. When we look at all these studies we can see that when there is change in weather, we will have different reactions on whether or not to help someone (Gueguen Stefan). Next, we will look at whether, or not gender has an influence in helping behavior. In one study done that found that mens emotional reactions are not typically related to their decisions on whether, or not to help someone (Fiala Et. al., 1999). This same article states that the Weiner(1980) had a theory that females emotional reactions could not be be explained in full when it came to the differences in their willingness to help someone (Fiala Et al., 1999). Another study that was done found that men were more willing to help after assessing the situation and that the helping behavior is one that they are competent to do (Fiala Et. al., 1999). In other words, men are more willing to help when the task is more masculine (Fiala Et.al., 1999). On the other hand, they found that women are more willing to help when it comes to nurturing situations that people need help with (Fiala Et al., 1999). Men hold the door open because it shows that they are masculine, dominance, and protection of women (Yoder Et.al 2002). This article is saying that people decide whether, or not they help depends on if they think they are capable of doing so. Belansky and Boggiano (1994) mentions that gender stereotypes is a major influence on helping behavior, than the peoples self-schemas ( Fiala Et al., 1999). Gender-role stereotypes also play a role in who we help, it influences people to make decisions on whether, or not to help them (Fiala.Et al., 1999). It was found that women find more satisfaction when they receive help from others than men do (Fiala Et. al., 1999). We can conclude that gender does play a role in whether, or not a helping behavior is being performed. The gender plays a role with both the person who is doing the helping behavior and the person who is receiving the behavior. In a study done, it was found that men held the door open more than females did (Roundy, Griffith, Jensen, Allen. 2005). There was a study done that showed 55.2% of women had opened the door for a man, whereas only 44.8% of men had opened the door open for women (Yoder Et. al., 2002). This same study found that 33% of the time, when a man had previously held the door open for a women, she returned the favor (Yoder Et. al., 2002). Then on the other hand, 48% reciprocity for men (Yoder Et.al.,2002). There was a study done to show that depending on how the person holds the door determines if they will give a verbal thanks (Fox Et.al.,2015). They f ound that when someone opens the door will a higher effort, the more likely they will say thank you and did not help more often (Fox Et.al.,2015). Method We conducted thirty observations. Fifteen of the observations will be a male experimenter who were holding four boxes. The other fifteen observations were divided between the remaining four group members who were female. We went with this approach because we wanted to see if there was a difference in gender when it comes to helping behavior. Other people that were involved in this experiment were other people on campus who we will be observing. The materials that we used for the experiment were four boxes that one of the participants would be holding while they were struggling to open the door. Other materials used were paper and pens, so the experimenters could write down notes as they are observing the experiment we were conducting. Lastly, we needed multiple different doors that were on campus. One participant of the group would be holding four boxes and they would try and open the door without putting the boxes down. We wanted to see if people would either ignore the experimenter while they were struggling to open the door, or if they will hold help them out by opening it for them. The other four participants at this time stood at a distance away from the door and watched the experiment happening and kept track of what they had seen happening at that moment. We wanted to see if there was a difference in gender when it came to the helping behavior of door holding the door. As well as the person carrying the boxes. The independent variable was the person who was carrying the boxes because we can control who is carrying the boxes. We will be switching between female and male box holders to see if there is was a difference in reaction. The dependent variable was the people around campus that may or may not hold the door open for the experimenter. First, we would select who will hold the boxes first. The other four members will be at a distances observing who opens the door and their reactions. We selected different doors around campus to do this experiment. The participant who was holding the boxes would start to show that they were struggling to open the door. At this time, the other experimenters would be observing and keeping track of who opened the door. We looked at gender, weather conditions, and tried determined the mood of the person who was holding the door, as well as people who do not open the door. One thing we looked at during this experiment were the different conditions and behavio rs. We also observed facial expressions and body language of the people who held the door. We are interested in looking at the weather and time of day as well. Results Theme #1: Socialization Socialization was one of the major theme in this experiment. This is when people in a society come together and help one another. As a society we need to learn to learn how to behave in a way that we would be accepted into the society. When there was a female box holder, whenever someone was walking by they always got the door opened by someone else. Social conformity is also another major theme in this experiment. We know how we should act towards others to fit in with society. The women never got ignored. Seven of the door holders were males and the other eight were females. There were different results when a male was carrying the boxes. Five of the door holder were males and there were six female door holders. That only makes elevendoor holder. This is because there were four males and one female who had ignored him, three different observations. Two were just walking past and the other two were sitting off to the side watching him struggle. There was a difference in whether, or not the door holder was coming in and out of the building. There was a total of seven people who were not even leaving the building and still opened the door for him. Five of those were females and two were males. Two males ignored him from the inside as well. There were a total of two people who were leaving the building that held the door for him. These two males then seen him struggling and kept the door open for him to enter the building. Two people opened the door for him from the outside. During the first observation an older man sitting across the room who worked at the library noticed the experimenter struggling to open the door. It was noticeable that he was debating on whether, or not to go open the door. It looked as if he was waiting on to see if whether, or not he would get it himself, or if someone else will open it. During the second observation the experimenter tried opening a door that was behind the man who watched him in the first observation. The older man seemed annoyed that the experimenter was trying to open the door and questioned him as to why he needed in that room. After the experimenter thanked him for his help he just smiled and did not give a verbal response. We looked at the responses people had when the box holder said thank you. Out of the fifteen observations for the male box holder seven of them responded to his thank you. Three of them were a verbal response, two were a non-verbal, and then there were two that did both. Out of the two verbal it was one male and one female. For the non-verbal it was two males and no females. When it came to both it was two females and one male. The male also chuckled as well. Then there were three people who did not respond to his thank you. One male and two female are the ones that did not respond. We then observed a total of fifteen observations with a female carrying the boxes. There were a total of six men who opened the door for the female experimenter. Five were female and then there were a total of five men who ignored the female experimenter. Three of the male door holders verbally responded to her thank you, one non-verbal male response, one who did both, and one who did neither. One of the male door holders kind of laughed because it was his second time opening it for her. Out of the five female door holders, two had a verbal response, there were zero non-verbal, two were both, and two were neither. We also kept track if the door holder was just walking by, or were they coming in or out of the door. Two of the males were leaving from the opposite side of the door. One female was going in the same door. One male and five females were just walking by and stopped just to help. In one observation, one male was on the same side of the door, but just stood there watching her struggle, and other other side of the door a male just watched as well. There was one more observation when a male was just walking passed and ignored the female who was trying to open the door with boxes in her hand. During one of the observations, something really interesting happened. As a female was walking down the hall with the boxes another female with a cart stopped and told her to put the boxes on the cart and she walked her to the doors and opened them both for her. The female with the cart was trying to convince the female experimenter to let her walk her to the dorms for her. This nice women was going to go way out of her way just to help her. Socialization was a theme in this experiment. This is when people in a society come together and help one another. As a society we need to learn to learn how to behave in a way that we would be accepted into the society. Theme #2: Delay in response Our second theme was delay in response, which is the bystander effect. According to research done by Tobias Greitemeyer,when there are more than one person around, people are less likely to help someone who is needs it (2015). The bystander effect is when there are multiple people around and when they see someone who needs help, they dont help because they think other people can help. Bystanders tend to expect someone else to help. There has been research done that suggest that the amount of people in the room plays an impact on whether, or not someone will help (Abbate. Et al., 2014). We had an example of this in our experiment. People who walked passed could of been displaying the bystander effect as well.Many times people will not help someone in public is because they do not want to be judged for helping someone (Abbate. Et. al., 2014). Theme #3: Social conformity When it comes to social conformity, we are talking about social norms. Human beings want to feel external rewards, we want approval form people around us (Oarga, C., Stavrova, O., Fetchenhauer, D, 2015). When we help people, we feel like we fit in with others around us, we feel like others approve of us (Oarga, C., Stavrova, O., Fetchenhauer, D, 2015). It also makes us feel better about ourselves. We are able to help someone who needs help, especially when everyone else that is around is not willing to help. This makes us look even better when we are the only one who is willing to help a stranger. Discussion As mentioned earlier in the paper, socialization, delay of response, and social conformity are key themes for helping behavior. In a past research article mentions that the social norm for door holding is that men should be holding the door open for a women (McCarty. M. Kelly. J). After doing our experiment we noticed that women were actually more likely to hold the door open for women. A few men ignored the female box holder and there were no females who ignored a female box holder. Past research mentions that men would be more likely to hold a door open for a stranger than a women would (McCarty. M Kelly. J). Our experiment would actually does not support this past research. From our experiment we found that there were more women willing to open a door for a stranger than a man would. Passed research shows that positive moods will facilitate people social relationships and their willingness to help other people (Gueguen Lamy, 2013). All this suggests that the sun will have an impact on helping behavior and it is probably influenced by mood (Gueguen Lamy, 2013). We can not always know if the person is in a bad mood because we do not always know them. They may express their emotions a different way. We may think someone looks mad or upset, but they may be happy. A limitation for this research is that it is not lonitudial. Not everyone smiles when they are happy. Our experiment supported previous research done on the delay of response. The more people in the room, the less likely someone will help because of the bystander effect (Abbate. Et. al., 2014). For example, in the first observation when the older gentlemen was debating on whether or not to get up to help. Another example is when the experimenter was trying to get in the building two men off to the side were just sitting there watching. Many people will help others because of social conformity. People help others because helping behavior is rewarding (Oarga. Et. al., 2015). For our experiment, we noticed the there were a few groups of people and one or two people in those groups were willing to help. One reason they will be willing to help is because if our friends see us helping someone else, they may help us in the future because they see us helping a stranger. Another reason someone may help another is because it may make themselves feel better because they were able to help someone. If this was a longitudinal research we can track the same people in a certain period of time. Another limitation for this experiment was that it is the summer. Not a lot of students can afford summer classes, or just choose not to. Therefore, there is not that as many people on campus. We also did this experiment during class time because that was the only time our group member could meet. A limitation we had was the distance we were observing from to make sure it wasnt obvious that we were watching, it was hard to see the persons facial expression. We had to rely on the person who was carrying the boxes. One major limitation we had was that we did all our observations in one day, we should of did a few different days to get a better insight on the weather affecting helping behavior.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Success Jealousy in Beauty Beauty, written by Jane Martin in the mid nineteen hundreds, is an ironic play about two successful women, Bethany and Carla. Both women were the same age yet complete opposites. They also had completely different personalities and were unhappy with their lives. We will write a custom essay sample on Pet Shop Boys and Beauty or any similar topic only for you Order Now Martin casted and characterized them this way to illustrate a few themes. The drama was mainly centered on the theme that no one is ever happy unless they get their wishes granted. However, in these two womenÃ¢â¬â¢s cases, getting what they wanted caused them to realize there is nothing wrong with being different. These two themes can be seen through the two characterÃ¢â¬â¢s success, jealousy, and a genie. Bethany and Carla experienced success in Beauty. Carla was a famous, Ã¢â¬Å"beautiful catalogue model that was going to become a big time model soon after speaking with Ralph LaurenÃ¢â¬ (Martin 735). On the other hand, Bethany, the smart one, Ã¢â¬Å"received a $40,000 job offer straight out of college. She also published several short storiesÃ¢â¬ (735). Carla was characterized as the perfect and beautiful success story, while Bethany was characterized as the ugly screw-up. However, neither person was happy in their respective positions. Carla was always annoyed, Ã¢â¬Å"and always hung by her fingernails in modeling. She felt like she had zero privacy, and guys would hassle her on the street and pressure her from the beginning of a relationship. She never was able to have a long relationshipÃ¢â¬ (736). Likewise, Bethany did not see herself as a success story because, Ã¢â¬Å"she did not see herself as a beautiful individualÃ¢â¬ (736). They both envied each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s success and looks. This alone shows the reader that the characters were very jealous of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Jealousy is very noticeable in Beauty, especially when it comes to Bethany. Bethany was extremely jealous of, Ã¢â¬Å"Carla because she looked beautiful. She represented that beautiful person that knocks a man across a room twenty-four hours a day. Beautiful was in the major leagues, whereas pretty was in the minor leagues as a way for people to simply discover each otherÃ¢â¬ (736). Bethany just considered a self a disgrace and a piece of trash. Carla explained, Ã¢â¬Å"Bethany is beautiful and she has the charm, personality, and is perfectly prettyÃ¢â¬ (736). Of course, Bethany places a stereotype on beautiful by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"it is the real deal. Carla gets discounts on makeup for no reason. Parents treat beautiful children better and they even statistically get paid more. Beautiful people can have sex any time, any placeÃ¢â¬ (736). Carla, confused, did not understand why Bethany wanted to be just like her. Bethany hated Carla most of the time because of her beauty. This leads Carla to go on a rant about beauty and why it is so difficult to live and be beautiful simultaneously. Carla tells Bethany to be herself and she will have an amazing life. Bethany begs to differ and says, Ã¢â¬Å"it is what everyone wants to be. Money can only make you buy things. Beauty makes you the center of the entire universe. All eyes are always on those individuals that are beautifulÃ¢â¬ (736). Carla says, Ã¢â¬Å"Bethany will hate her life is she was beautiful. She would be miserable and unhappyÃ¢â¬ (736). Bethany then pulls out a genie in a bottle. Bethany, determined, reiterates, Ã¢â¬Å"CarlaÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts do not matter. Carla was just lying about everything, which explains why she had no friends or a long relationship. Bethany wanted to be just like Carla, and she had a god dam genie and only one wish to makeÃ¢â¬ (736). Bethany indeed used her one wish and wished that she was just like Carla. The genie is used as a symbol to symbolize the fact that Bethany got everything she wanted to be happy. The genie allowed Bethany to Ã¢â¬Å"walk in CarlaÃ¢â¬â¢s shoesÃ¢â¬ . Bethany and Carla looked at each other and realized they had swapped roles. Both women stated, Ã¢â¬Å"We have each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s jewelry, legs, nail polish, clothes and shoes. We can see each other! Ã¢â¬ (737). Upset, Bethany stated, Ã¢â¬Å"She wanted to be beautiful, but she did not want to be Carla. (737). In the end, both women realized they regretted getting what they wanted because they both had the same thing that every other human had. They both realize that their happiness was not good because it only showed that they both just had a plethora of different problems. Beauty is practically a real life drama that actually occ urs every day in the world. There are hundreds of thousands of people that are not happy with their current situations in life. Many of them just want to be so much more successful, and, in BethanyÃ¢â¬â¢s case, more beautiful. Too many people think that success and having good looks automatically lead to unlimited happiness. Sadly, this is a lot more false than true. People will only be happy if they are themselves and are different and unique. After reading MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s play, one can see that the two women are just like two people in the real world. They both have experienced success and jealousy. Too many people worry too much about their image and appearance. The genie in the play showed what happens sometimes when someone is given everything they ever dreamed of having. The genie granted BethanyÃ¢â¬â¢s wish so she could realize how it felt being in someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s place or position. Afterwards, she saw that being different was okay and actually better than she initially thought. She realized that she did not want to be anyone but herself. Overall, Beauty illustrates a real life event that teaches people a valuable lesson: One should be happy and unique because there is nothing wrong with being different. Martin, Jane. Beauty. Literature and the Writing Process. Ed. Elizabeth McMahan, Susan X. Day, Robert Funk, and Linda S. Coleman. Backpack ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2011. 733-737. Print. How to cite Pet Shop Boys and Beauty, Essay examples
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Detection of Ions in Solutions Using Acid/Base Paper You will then conduct quality control testers and determine if the label on a bottle of over-the-counter product actually contains the percentage of compound that it advertises. What is a Titration? A titration is an analytical procedure used to determine the concentration of a sample by reacting it With a standard solution. One type Of titration uses a naturalization reaction, in which an acid and a base react to produce a salt and water. In equation 1, the acid is HCI (called hydrochloric acid) and the base is Noah (called sodium hydroxide), When the acid and base react, they form NCAA sodium chloride), which is also known as table salt. The titration proceeds until the equivalence point is reached, Where the number of moles of acid is equal to the number of moles of base. This point is usually marked by observing a color change in an added indicator. In a titration, the standard solution goes in a burette, which is a piece of glassware used to measure the volume of solvent to approximately 0. 1 ml of accuracy. The solution that you are titrating goes in an Erlenmeyer flask, which should be large enough to accommodate both your sample and the standard solution you are adding. What is an Indicator and What is it used For? An indicator is any substance in solution that changes its color as it reacts with either an acid or a base. Selecting the proper indicator is important because each indicator changes its color over a particular range Of pH values. Indicators are either weak acids or weak bases. For example, phenolphthalein is a weak acid (Which we Will represent as Hal). In aqueous solution, the phenolphthalein dissociates slightly, forming an equilibrium. An equilibrium occurs when the amount of reactants and the amount of products are constant. We will write a custom essay sample on Detection of Ions in Solutions Using Acid/Base specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Detection of Ions in Solutions Using Acid/Base specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Detection of Ions in Solutions Using Acid/Base specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer When a system is in equilibrium, it Will stay there until something changes the conditions. A famous French chemist, named El Chatterer, developed a way to predict how changes in equilibrium affect the system. El Chatterers principle states that when an equilibrium is disturbed by applying stress, the equilibrium will shift to relieve the stress, In an acidic solution, there is an excess of HUH+ ions so the equilibrium will shift to the left and favor the for-nation of Hal, thus we observe a clear solution. In basic solution, there is an excess of OH- ions that react with the HUH* ions to form eater. This shifts the equilibrium to the right because water is being formed and HUHÃ ± ions are being removed, thus eve observe a pink solution. We can use this color change to determine when the end of the titration has been achieved. Table I lists common indicators and the pH range over Which they change colors. Measuring pH: How to Calibrate a pH Meter pH is a measure of acidity or basilica. An acid has a pH less than 7, a neutral compound (like water) has a pH near 7, and a base has a pH from 7-14 pH can be measured using either litmus (or indicator) paper, which changes color eased on the acidity of a solution, or by using a pH meter. A pH meter is a more accurate means Of measuring pH because it can be calibrated to measure one tenth of a pH unit, overhears the indicator paper only measures to one pH unit. A pH meter uses an electrode to measure the pH of a solution. The electrode is stored in distilled water in order to keep it at a neutral PH. To calibrate the pH meter: 1. Remove the electrode from the distilled water and place in pH 4 buffer, Which is pink. Make sure the electrode is completely covered in buffer and swirl the solution around. 2. Set the pH meter to pH a and then rinse the electrode With distilled water to remove any excess solution. . Place the electrode in pH 10 buffer (which is blue) and swirl it around in the solution. 4. Set the pH meter to pH 10 and rinse the electrode, returning it to the distilled water once you are finished. The pH meter should now be calibrated to measure any pH accurately. Standardizing a Sodium Hydroxide (Noah) Solution In a titration, it is critical to know the exa ct concentration of the iterant (the solution in the burette which will be added to the unknown) in order to determine he concentration of the solution being tested. We will standardize the -?0. M Noah solution (the iterant) with potassium hydrogen phthalate (KIP, KC8H404H) using phenolphthalein as the indicator, KIP is a weak acid and reacts with base in the following way: To Standardize: I _ Weigh -?0. 8 g of dried KIP (MM = 204 23 g/mol) into an Erlenmeyer flask and dissolve in 50-75 ml of distilled water. Record the amount of KIP and water used. 2. Add 4 drops Of indicator into the flask and titrate to the first permanent appearance of pink. Near the endpoint, add the Noah drowses to determine the total volume most accurately. Calculate the concentration Of Noah in the following way: Calculate Concentration of KIP: Calculate Concentration of Noah: Remember: There are 1000 ml in a Land 1000 MGM in a gram. 4. Report the concentration of Noah to the class. An average number will be determined to give the most reliable value of Noah concentration. Do not discard the remaining Noah you will use this for the rest of these experiments. Standardizing an HCI Solution the concentration of solutions being tested. We will standardize the -?0. 1 M HCI solution (the iterant) with sodium carbonate (Niacin) using phenolphthalein as the indicator. Niacin is a base and reacts with the strong acid HCI in the I _ Weigh -?0. 2 g Niacin into an Erlenmeyer flask and dissolve it in 50 ml of boiled, cooled distilled water. Record the exact amount of Niacin used in your notebook. (The water is boiled to expel CA from the solution. ) 2. Add 4 drops Of phenolphthalein to the solution and record the color. 3. Titrate with the HCI until just before the endpoint (when the solution is very light pink) and then gently boil the solution to expel the CA from solution that has been produced during the reaction (see CEQ 4). . Cool the solution to room temperature and then wash he sides of the flask with a small amount of H2O to get all of the sample back into solution. S. Finish the titration (this will take VERY little HCI so go slow! ) 6. Record the color of the solution and the volume of HCI used. 7. Calculate the concentration of HCI in the following way: Determination to Magnesium Hydroxide [MGM(OH)2] Content in Milk of Magnesia Milk of magn esia is a viscous, mildly basic mixture that is used to treat upset stomach and occasionally to prevent constipation. According to standards set by the pharmaceutical industry, milk of magnesia should contain at least 7% y weight We will be doing detective work to see if the pharmaceutical industry is being truthful in their claim by determining the weight percent of magnesium hydroxide in different bottles of milk of magnesia. An accurate analysis Of milk Of magnesia must measure the total both dissolved and suspended in solution. This is tricky because milk of magnesia exists as a White opaque solution so each sample may not be representative Of the whole bottle. To make the solution as homogeneous as possible, the bottle must be shaken thoroughly. Direct titration of milk of magnesia is difficult due to the cloudy suspension and he fact that some of the solution may cling to the sides of the flask, preventing complete titration and altering the measurement of the endpoint. The opaque solution may also make it difficult to detect the color change of the endpoint. For this reason, a back titration will be used to measure the weight percent MGM(OH)2 in milk of magnesia. Excess HCI will react with all of the MGM(OH)2 to yield a clear solution and then the excess unrelated acid will be back titrated with standardized Noah. The reactions in this titration are as tools: Procedure: I _ Obtain a vial filled with between I-I . G milk of magnesia and weigh the vial and sample without the lid on. Record the value. 2. Rinse the contents of the vial into a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask With distilled water and dilute the solution to 50 ml total volume. Extra water can be used if milk of magnesia remnants remain in the vial. 3. Add a measured amount Of HCI (from a burette) into the beaker until the solution is clear and then add an additional 1-2 ml HCI to ensure there is an excess Of acid. Record the volume of HCI added. For a I g sample Of milk Of magnesia, this should be at least 30 ml HCI. ) Measure the pH of the solution sing a pH meter or pH paper and record the value. 4. Add 4 drops of indicator (what color is the solution? ) and titrate the solution with standardized Noah. The titration will go quickly, with less than 5 ml of Noah required. Record the volume of Noah used and the color of the solution, Measure the pH of the solution again and record the value. 5. Rinse the vial with distilled water and dry in an oven or in a microwave for 1 minute. When dry and cool, weigh the vial to determine the actual weight of the milk to magnesia sample. Make sure there is no water left in the vial! This will skew your results! Record the weight. 6. Calculate the weight percent to MGM(OH)2 in milk of magnesia using the following equation: Calculate the weight percentage of Milk of Magnesia: 7 _ Repeat with another sample of milk of magnesia from a different bottle to see if the weight percent of MGM(OH)2 is consistent from sample to sample. Questions: 1. Would the weight percentage of MGM(OH)2 be higher or lower if some of the milk Of magnesia sample got stuck on the sides Of the flask and was not titrated? Show the thought process for your answer. . Was there a consistent amount Of MGM(OH)2 in each bottle Of milk Of magnesia, or did the values change? Was the change dramatic or small? 3. How would the weight percentage of MGM(OH)2 change if the weight of the sample was measured incorrectly (for example, the vial was not washed thoroughly or some water remained, changing the weight)? 4. If you determined a different weight percent of MGM(OH)2 other than 7%, what do you think is the reason? Is there something in your determination that went wrong or are pharmaceutical companies giving us false information? Standardizing an EDIT (delimitation attractive acid) Solution elution in the burette that will be added to the unknown) in order to determine the concentration of the solutions being tested. We Will standardize a -0. 01 M DE TA solution (the iterant) by adding it to a calcium carbonate (Cacao) solution using hydroxylation blue as the indicator. EDIT is used because it can chalet (bind to a metal atom through many different bonds) so that it captures and surrounds the calcium in solution. EDIT can capture the metal through any Of its six donor atoms, indicated by boxes. In this experiment, one molecule Of EDIT captures one atom of calcium. EDIT . Weigh -?0. 25 g Cacao into a 250. 0 ml calibrated flask and dissolve it in a minimal amount of concentrated HCI. Then dilute with distilled water to the 250. 0 ml mark, Record the exact amount of Cacao used in your notebook. 2. Calculate the concentration of Cacao in the following way: 3. Transfer 25. 00 ml (measured with a calibrated pipette) into a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask and dilute with an equal volume of water. 4 Add 1 M Noah to raise the pH to 12 (measure with a pH meter or pH paper). Fifth pH drops below pH 12 during the titration, add additional Noah. . Add 4-8 drops of hydroxylation blue indicator to the solution and record the color _ 6. Begin adding EDIT until the color change is observed. Record the color of the solution and the volume Of DE TA necessary to achieve this change. 7. Calculate the concentration of EDIT in the following way: Determination of Calcium in [emailprotected] by Back Titrat ion [emailprotected] is an orange drink that serves as an orange juice substitute, and astronauts drink Tango because it is easy to transport to space! Tang boasts that it is a good source of calcium despite containing only a fraction of the minimum daily requirement of Ca*. To test the manufacturers claim, we will determine the amount of calcium in [emailprotected] the use of a complimentary titration. A complimentary titration is a type of titration verge a complex is formed between an analyze and a iterant. The analyze is the ion you are testing for, here Ca+. The iterant is the EDIT that was previously standardized. During the course Of the titration, the EDIT Will capture one molecule Of Ca+ and bind to it, forming a colored complex. During the forward titration, each molecule of EDIT will capture one molecule Of Ca*. When all Of the Ca* is compelled, the solution Will change color and o will observe the endpoint. To check yourself, you will add additional EDIT to the solution and perform a back titration. Now there is excess EDIT floating in solution but no Ca* to bind to it. By adding Cacao, the EDIT can bind to the new source of Ca+, which leads to the next color change when all of the Ca+ has found an EDIT molecule. The color change at the endpoint will be hard to see due to the orange nature of the [emailprotected], so it will be necessary to perform a back titration.
Friday, March 20, 2020
At the Intersection of Poetry andMusic Four adaptations of poems set to music: some tender, some bizarre, all personal homages to poems and their masters. Enjoy! Im Nobody! Who Are You? by Emily Dickinson Composed by Israeli singer-songwriter Efrat Ben Zur. Im nobody! Who are you? Are you nobody, too? Then theres a pair of us dont tell! Theyd banish you know! How dreary to be somebody! How public like a frog To tell ones name the livelong day To an admiring bog! Sonnet 49 by Pablo Neruda The best loved love poet as sung by jazz artist Luciana Souza. Its today: all of yesterday dropped away among the fingers of the light and the sleeping eyes. Tomorrow will come on its green footsteps; no one can stop the river of the dawn. No one can stop the river of your hands, your eyes and their sleepiness, my dearest. You are the trembling of time, which passes between the vertical light and the darkening sky. To a Man Young and Old by William Butler Yeats A bit of an oddball, from the album Yeats is Greats by lo-fi San Francisco duo The Speakers. THOUGH nurtured like the sailing moon In beautys murderous brood, She walked awhile and blushed awhile And on my pathway stood Until I thought her body bore A heart of flesh and blood. But since I laid a hand thereon And found a heart of stone I have attempted many things And not a thing is done, For every hand is lunatic That travels on the moon. Open His Head by ee cummings Tin Hat performs one of their songs from the album The Rain is a Handsome Animal, which contains 17 songs inspired by ee cummings poetry. open his head,baby Ã youllÃ findÃ a heart in it (cracked) open that heart, mabel Ã youllÃ findÃ a bed in it (fact) open thisÃ bed,sibyl Ã youll find a tart in it (wed) open theÃ tart,lady Ã youllÃ findÃ his mind in it (dead) (Feature Image via Unsplash)
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Echinoderm Facts and Information Echinoderms, or members of the phylum Echinodermata, are some of the most easily-recognized marine invertebrates. This phylum includes sea stars (starfish), sand dollars, and urchins, and they are identified by their radial body structure, often featuring five arms.Ã You can often see echinoderm species in a tidal pool or in the touch tank at your local aquarium. Most echinoderms are small, with an adult size of about 4 inches, but some can grow to as much as 6.5 feet in length. Different species may be found in a variety of bright colors, including purples, reds, and yellows.Ã Classes of Echinoderms The phylum Echinodermata contains five classes of marine life:Ã AsteroideaÃ (sea stars),Ã OphiuroideaÃ (brittle stars and basket stars), Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars), Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers), and Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars). They are a diverse group of organisms, containing about 7,000 species. The phylum is regarded as one of the oldest of all animal groups, thought to have appeared at the start of the Cambrian era, about 500 million years ago.Ã Etymology The word echinoderm meansÃ comes from the Greek word ekhinos, meaning hedgehog or sea urchin, and the wordÃ derma, meaning skin. Thus, they are spiny-skinned animals. The spines on some echinoderms are more obvious than others. They are very pronounced inÃ sea urchins, for example. If you run your finger over a sea star, youll likely feel small spines. The spines on sand dollars, on the other hand, are less pronounced.Ã Basic Body Plan Echinoderms have a unique body design. Many echinoderms exhibitÃ radial symmetry, which means that their components are arranged around a central axis in a symmetrical manner. This means that an echinoderm has no obvious left and right half, only a top side, and a bottom side. Many echinoderms exhibit pentaradial symmetry- a type of radial symmetry in which the body can be divided into five equally-sized slices organized around a central disk. Although echinoderms can be very diverse, they all have some similarities. These similarities can be found in their circulatory and reproductive systems. Water Vascular System Instead of blood, echinoderms have a water vascular system, which is used for movement and predation. The echinoderm pumps sea water into its body through a sieve plate or madreporite, and this water fills the echinoderms tube feet. The echinoderm moves about the sea floor or across rocks or reefs by filling its tube feet with water to extend themÃ and then using muscles within the tube feet to retract them. The tube feet also allows echinoderms to hold on to rocks and other substrates and to grip prey by suction. Sea stars have very strong suction in their tube feet that even allows them to pry open the two shells of a bivalve. Echinoderm Reproduction Most echinoderms reproduce sexually, although males and females are virtually indistinguishable from one another when viewed externally. During sexual reproduction, echinoderms release eggs or sperm into the water, which are fertilized in the water column by the male. The fertilized eggs hatch into free-swimming larvae that eventually settle to the ocean bottom. Echinoderms can also reproduce asexually by regenerating body parts, such as arms and spines. Sea stars are well-known for their ability to regenerate arms that are lost. In fact, even if the sea star has only a small part of its central disk left, it can grow an entirely new sea star.Ã Feeding Behavior Many echinoderms are omnivorous, feeding on a variety of living and dead plant and marine life. They serve an important function in digesting dead plant material on the ocean floor and thereby keeping waters clean. Plentiful echinoderm populations are essential to healthy coral reefs. The digestive system of echinoderms is relatively simple and primitive compared to other marine life; some species ingest and expel waste through the same orifice. Some species simply ingest sediments and filter out the organic material, while other species are capable of catching prey, usually plankton and small fish, with their arms.Ã Impact on Humans While not an important source of food for humans, some forms of sea urchin are regarded as a delicacy in some parts of the world, where they are used in soups. Some echinoderms produce a toxin which is fatal to fish, but which can be used to make a medicine used to treat human cancers.Ã Echinoderms are generally beneficial to ocean ecology, with a few exceptions. Starfish, which prey on oysters and other mollusks, have devastated some commercial enterprises. Off the coast of California, sea urchins have caused problems for commercial seaweed farms by eating young plants before they can become established.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Reward and Performance - Essay Example In contrast, survey carried out by Kenneth Kovach depicted that employee's ranked good wages fifth among their top ten job reward factors. Therefore, there appears to be a difference in ideology of what motivates employees (Kovach, 1995). Motivation revels when in an organisation considers all factors affecting performance. (Ruebusch, 2003). These factors include individual needs, nature of the job i.e. degree of job challenge and goal clarity, job design, job security, organisational climate, a sense of personal significance, stability of expectations, recognition, trust, honest communication, dignity and respect, as well as an equitable reward system which will be discussed in great detail in the proposed thesis. The exigency to motivate employees with desirable rewards has hitherto salvaged a significant level of importance; this is because rewards can serve as motivators but could also have negative reactions should that supposed merit falls below employee's expectations. Therefore, this thesis seeks to examine the impact of valued rewards on performance in the banking industry utilizing the expectancy theory and two factor theory of motivation framework, while introducing other factors that influence the activity levels of performance. From my critical research on the literature on motivation, as well as the growing need by managers to find solutions to the question how do they motivate employees, I discovered a few conjectures that need to be addressed and elaborated upon in this dissertation. One aim is to ascertain the impact of valued rewards on individual and organisational performance and its effect on productivity and profitability. Then, conjuring strategies that improvises and sustains performance through the establishment of feedback channels, employee training and a friendly work environment can provide a breeding ground for trust. The examination of other variables besides rewards that affect performance such as the aforementioned job security and recognition among others must be in order so that variables can withstand and make a difference through the test of time. Finally, the determination of what rewards employees consider valuable enough to influence behaviour will allow management to be very sel ective to rewards that can profit the workers. Business organisations still face a lot of difficulties in the area of employee motivation. This poses a dilemma for employees' control of other factors of production in order to achieve goals, greater productivity and higher profits. In order to motivate people you must appeal to their deepest desires (Ruebusch, 2003). Managers should not expect a standard compensation plan or incentive program to have the similar effect on every employee. To procure top performance, compensation plans and incentive programs must be deftly tailored to meet the specific needs of each employee because employees of different ages and generational cohorts have varying needs over time (Jeffords et al, 1997). It has also been observed that extrinsic rewards have effect on employees to work proficiently. Therefore, this study will provide managers within the banking industry with a deeper insight into the needs of today's employees and rein them towards other reward trends which appear to boost employee mo rale and productivity. As highlighted by Herrera (2002), managers need to be concerned of the creation of workplace culture that